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Risk of hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: the influence of the progressive accumulation of viral mutations during chronic infection

Risk of hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: the influence of the progressive accumulation of viral mutations during chronic infection

NTU long-term follow-up study used viral whole-genome sequencing to identify a temporal mutation profile that can indicate which patients with HBV will develop HCCChronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for approximately 50% of global HCC cases; the greatest burden of HBV-induced HCC is found in Southeast Asia. Although chronic carriers of HBV have a 20-fold increase in HCC risk, rates of progression to HCC differ substantially amo...

Introduction to climate change Governance and Law

Introduction to climate change Governance and Law

From the Kyoto Protocol to the Paris Agreement: Climate Change 2.0 The year 2016 saw two surprising events in the world of climate change governance. First, the Paris Agreement was ratified by more than 55 state parties, which together account for more than 55% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, on October 5, and it officially became effective on November 4. Second, Donald Trump, a climate change skeptic, was elected as President of the United States, one of the largest greenhouse gas-e...

The barriers and challenges of urban climate governance in Taiwan: a multilevel governance perspective

The barriers and challenges of urban climate governance in Taiwan: a multilevel governance perspective

The Role of Cities in Climate Governance Urban climate governance has become a vital aspect of contemporary global governance. In 1976, when the United Nations held the first UN-Habitat in Vancouver, Canada, two-thirds of the world population was concentrated in rural areas. Now, forty years later, half of the world population lives in cities, and fast-paced urbanization has created grand challenges for urban governance systems. Since the industrial revolution, developing economic and social ...

With climate change, fertilizing

With climate change, fertilizing

Scientists plumbing the depths of the central equatorial Pacific Ocean have found ancient sediments suggesting that one proposed way to mitigate climate warming—fertilizing the oceans with iron to produce more carbon-eating algae—may not necessarily work as envisioned. Plants need trace amounts of iron to perform photosynthesis, but certain parts of the oceans lack iron, and algae are therefore scarce in those areas. Recent shipboard experiments have shown that when researchers dump iron part...

A decade of sea level rise slowed by

A decade of sea level rise slowed by

Rising sea level is a threat to people living in and near coastal regions. Therefore, accurately predicting and understanding changes in sea level are critical, especially in the face of climate change. However, because of a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that govern the water exchange between the land and the ocean, the fraction of global total water storage on land that contributes to changes in sea level remains unclear. Between 2003 and 2011, mass loss from glaciers and ice she...

Recent increases in extreme rainfall

Recent increases in extreme rainfall

No, they are not due to global warming Taiwan, which is situated in one of the main paths of western North Pacific tropical cyclones (TCs), has experienced a series of TCs with an extraordinary amount of rainfall since the late 1990s. As of 2015, 11 of the top 15 typhoons based on total rainfall since hourly rainfall observations began in 1960 have occurred in the 21st century. The most extreme case was the record-breaking Typhoon Morakot in 2009. This event caused considerable economic losse...

How sure is sure? Are we absolutely?

How sure is sure? Are we absolutely?

Providing probabilistic flood forecasts using an ensemble precipitation forecasting technique Dr. Edward Norton Lorenz, an American mathematician and meteorologist, realized that small differences in the atmosphere or an atmosphere model can lead to unsuspected results. He stated that “When a butterfly flutters its wings in one part of the world, it can eventually cause a hurricane in another.” The statement later became a world-renowned concept called the “butterfly effect”. Because consider...

An ancient cold event 12 thousand years ago provides clues for future climate change

An ancient cold event 12 thousand years ago provides clues for future climate change

Dr. Chuan-Chou Shen, a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University (NTU), collaborated with Dr. Jud Partin of the University of Texas (UT) at Austin to publish new research results regarding a well-known abrupt cooling event 12 thousand years ago (ka), called the Younger Dryas, in the renowned journal Nature Communications on September 2, 2015 (ref. 1). In this study, researchers used stalagmite records to show that this event occurred rapidly, over decad...

Risk of aortic dissection and aortic

Risk of aortic dissection and aortic

NTU College of Medicine uncovers new global drug safety insights by using big data from the National Health Insurance Database A research team at the National Taiwan College of Medicine has uncovered new insights into global drug safety. The team discovered a nearly 3-fold increase in the risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection in users of fluoroquinolone, a widely used antibiotic. Fluoroquinolones are widely used for the treatment of bacterial infections in the respiratory tract, intra-abdomina...

A simple, powerful, and widely

A simple, powerful, and widely

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with various pathogenesis, treatment responses and clinical outcomes. Personalized treatment according to individual patient risk could both improve patient survival and reduce treatment side effects. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are derived from precursor RNAs processed by a protein complex containing Dicer and Drosha. They regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through either mRNA degradation or translat...