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Contextual modulation of to-be-remembered information in visual working memory

Contextual modulation of to-be-remembered information in visual working memory

Humans exhibit a remarkable cognitive flexibility to adapt to novel contexts. This great flexibility for new contexts relies on three cognitive abilities in concert. First, one must maintain goal-relevant representations in working memory (WM). Second, achieving one’s goal depends on the anticipation of upcoming events, and one must act in such a way that the future outcome will be in accordance with the desired outcome. Third, such anticipation relies on one’s past experiences assoc...

Deep-sea corals and coral-bioeroding foraminifera in the South China Sea

Deep-sea corals and coral-bioeroding foraminifera in the South China Sea

Coral reefs are shallow-water ecosystems that occur in tropical and subtropical seas. They feature very high biodiversity and primary productivity, as well as beautiful scenery. The species diversity and ecology of the coral reefs bordering Taiwan have been the focus of marine biology studies in the past several decades. However, the biodiversity of deep-sea corals in the seas surrounding Taiwan has not been investigated. From 2013 to 2016, we conducted field surveys on the species diversity and...

Deep-sea ecosystem functions linked to biodiversity over the past 20,000 years

Deep-sea ecosystem functions linked to biodiversity over the past 20,000 years

Biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) relationships have received much attention from ecologists, conservation biologists, and managers because they can be used to infer the consequences of losses of biodiversity on earth. Such losses are occurring rapidly due to biomass exploitation, habitat degradation, and especially global climate change. Since the mid-1990s, hundreds of experiments have manipulated the richness of plant or animal species or different combinations of functional groups in the...

Quantum topological Hall effect in noncoplanar antiferromagnetic oxides

Quantum topological Hall effect in noncoplanar antiferromagnetic oxides

The integer quantum Hall (IQH) effect, first discovered in 1980 by von Klitzing [1] (a 1985 Nobel Laureate), is one of the most fascinating discoveries in physics. When a strong perpendicular magnetic field is applied to a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas (EG) at low temperatures, the Hall conductance is precisely quantized due to Landau-level quantization, and its values are an integer (NC) multiple of the fundamental conductance quantum (e2/h). In 1982, Thouless (a 2016 Nobel Laureate) demons...

Light propagation in electrically driven liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides with electromicrofluidics

Light propagation in electrically driven liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides with electromicrofluidics

Liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides offer optically smooth liquid/liquid interfaces to guide light along microfluidic liquid streams with adjustable optical properties. We investigated dielectrophoresis (DEP) on an electromicrofluidic platform to construct reconfigurable liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides by applying adequate electric fields between parallel plates without the constant liquid supply usually needed for laminar flow in physical microchannels. L-shaped, spira...

A fast-track characterization protocol of spin-orbit torque efficiencies

A fast-track characterization protocol of spin-orbit torque efficiencies

Spin-orbit coupling is a source of many exotic physical phenomena found in various condensed matter systems; these phenomena, such as the current-induced spin Hall effect (SHE) and the spin-orbit torque (SOT), originate from transition metal-based and emergent material-based magnetic heterostructures. The SHE-induced SOT and its related effects have been widely studied both theoretically and experimentally and demonstrated by harnessing the magnetization dynamics in certain material systems (e.g...

A novel mechanism of fine-tuning inflammatory responses

A novel mechanism of fine-tuning inflammatory responses

Inflammation is an important component of innate immunity and is quickly induced by the host upon pathogenic infection. Upon infection, innate immune cells, such as macrophages, use pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), mainly Toll-like receptors (TLRs), to detect conserved microbial molecules termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from injured or dead cells. Then, innate immune cells mount a defensive response to clear path...

Snake venom is a key ingredient for developing anti-thrombotic agents

Snake venom is a key ingredient for developing anti-thrombotic agents

Upon vessel wall injury, the integrity of the endothelial cell layer is disrupted, and platelets interact with exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. The initial interaction between platelets and subendothelial collagens under high-shear conditions is indirectly mediated by a plasma protein, von Willebrand factor (vWF), which binds collagen and the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib/V/IX complex. This unstable interaction facilitates transient platelet tethering and rolling on the injured endo...

Influence of genetic variants on the response to lithium treatment in bipolar disorder

Influence of genetic variants on the response to lithium treatment in bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a major psychiatric illness with a chronic recurrent course, ranked among the leading disabling diseases worldwide. Lithium medication remains a first-line treatment option among BPD patients despite varying outcomes in treatment response. About two-thirds of BPD patients do not achieve full remission with lithium treatment. Significant genetic contributions have been suggested to account for part of the inter-individual differences in treatment response. The identifica...

The R&D premium and takeover risk

The R&D premium and takeover risk

Why do firms with high R&D intensity offer their investors higher stock returns? Although R&D typically has long-term implications for future earnings, its costs must be expensed as they occur and could therefore negatively impact reported earnings. Certain studies suggest that R&D expensing can lead to earnings distortion and mispricing, whereas other investigations argue that uncertainty about R&D outcomes may generate additional risk, leading investors to require higher return...