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East Asian Confucianisms: Texts in contexts

East Asian Confucianisms: Texts in contexts

This volume tells the story of the importance of Confucian traditions and why and how Confucian texts were reinterpreted within different ambiances and contexts around East Asia. The vitality of “East Asian Confucianisms” stems from the desire of Confucian thinkers to interpret the core values of the Confucian classics in accordance with conditions and changes in their own times and locations. Although all of the interpretations advanced in China, Korea and Japan were specific to the...

Plant hormone jasmonate-isoleucine (ja-ile) biosynthesis may be regulated by far-red light signaling based on the fin219-fip1 protein complex

Plant hormone jasmonate-isoleucine (ja-ile) biosynthesis may be regulated by far-red light signaling based on the fin219-fip1 protein complex

Light influences plant growth and development. Far-red light and red light can synergistically affect seed germination and photomorphogenesis through the phytochrome photoreceptors in plant cells. A previous study demonstrated that a jasmonate synthetase, FIN219 (FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219), also known as JAR1 (JASMONATE RESISTANT 1), functions to conjugate jasmonate (JA) to amino acids such as Isoleucine (Ile) in the JA signaling pathway. JA-Ile is an active phytohormone required for plant defense...

Micrornas modulate circadian clock genes to enhance zebrafish cold tolerance

Micrornas modulate circadian clock genes to enhance zebrafish cold tolerance

Professor Shyh-Jye Lee of the Department of Life Science, who also serves as the director of the Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, led his team in demonstrating that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the cold responses of fish by fine-tuning circadian clock genes. Using genomics approaches, the team discovered that miRNA-dependent circadian clock genes help zebrafish larvae to withstand cold stress. This research provides insights that may help to reduce massive fish...

Mapping the retinal input to the clock in the brain at single-cell resolution

Mapping the retinal input to the clock in the brain at single-cell resolution

All mammals have a circadian clock system in the brain, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), that modulates many physiological functions throughout the day and night. The environmental light-dark cycle is one of the most important daily cues that entrains (i.e. sets) the endogenous clock in the SCN to the outside world. In addition, a specific type of neuron at the back of the eye, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC), transmits luminance signals to reset the clock...

Emerging threat of avian coronavirus variants and novel countermeasures

Emerging threat of avian coronavirus variants and novel countermeasures

Coronaviruses include some pathogens that are fatal to humans and animals, such as severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which cause devastating diseases and tremendous loss. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the avian coronavirus, is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide, and the continuous emergence of new viral variants complicates its disease control. There is an urgent need to characterize the emerging variants and to deve...

Chemical analysis reveals the hidden secrets of Stradivari violins

Chemical analysis reveals the hidden secrets of Stradivari violins

NTU researchers identified unique properties in the wood of famous antique instruments The secrets of Stradivari violins are one of the most enduring mysteries of European culture. Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737), Latinized as “Stradivarius” and abbreviated “Strad,” has become synonymous with superlative violins. What gives his violins such unique tonal qualities has been a matter of heated debate over the past two centuries. The legend of Stradivari began in Cremona...

Why does the interface of insulating oxides become conductive?

Why does the interface of insulating oxides become conductive?

The ability to engineer electrical properties at semiconductor interfaces has facilitated the modern success of electronic technologies and is based on the concept of band alignment, which can be otherwise lifted in insulating oxides due to their characteristic wide band gaps and associated electronic properties [1]. The heterojunction between two insulating oxides is thus expected to remain insulating, unlike its semiconductor analog. However, the discovery of a metallic interface between insul...

Facile self-assembly of metallo-supramolecular ring-in-ring and spider web structures using multivalent terpyridine ligands

Facile self-assembly of metallo-supramolecular ring-in-ring and spider web structures using multivalent terpyridine ligands

A research team led by Professor Yi-Tsu Chan in the Department of Chemistry at National Taiwan University aims to develop facile approaches to the assembly of predesigned building blocks into desired nanostructures via weak intermolecular interactions. Building on fundamental coordination and organic chemistry, they conduct systematic studies on how ligand geometry affects self-assembled structures in solution. Recently, it was found that a series of metallo-supramolecular ring-in-ring structure...

Mechanically interlocked daisy-chain-like structures as multidimensional molecular muscles

Mechanically interlocked daisy-chain-like structures as multidimensional molecular muscles

Daisy chains are garlands of flowers often worn as bracelets or necklaces (Figure 1). Because of their beautiful structures and possibly muscle-like motions, cyclic molecular daisy chains ([cn]DCs, where n is the number of repeating units) have long been attractive synthetic targets for supramolecular chemists. The significant entropic preference for small [c2]DCs has meant, however, that the selective assembly of higher-order homologues (n ≥ 3) remains highly challenging. Figure 1. A...

Spatially resolved imaging of photocarrier generation and band alignment at the perovskite/PbI2 heterointerfaces of perovskite solar cells by using light-modulated scanning tunneling microscopy

Spatially resolved imaging of photocarrier generation and band alignment at the perovskite/PbI2 heterointerfaces of perovskite solar cells by using light-modulated scanning tunneling microscopy

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently shown remarkable power conversion efficiencies of up to 20% in photovoltaic applications. The inherent polycrystallinity of perovskite films is expected to significantly affect charge generation and transport efficiency under light illumination. Although it is known that an optimally thin PbI2 layer on perovskite crystals may enhance device performance, a detailed understanding of local electronic information regarding carrier generatio...